Freshwater distributions and water mass structure in the Amundsen Sea Polynya region, Antarctica

first_imgWe present the first densely-sampled hydrographic survey of the Amundsen Sea Polynya (ASP) region, including a detailed characterization of its freshwater distributions. Multiple components contribute to the freshwater budget, including precipitation, sea ice melt, basal ice shelf melt, and iceberg melt, from local and non-local sources. We used stable oxygen isotope ratios in seawater (δ18O) to distinguish quantitatively the contributions from sea ice and meteoric-derived sources. Meteoric fractions were high throughout the winter mixed layer (WML), with maximum values of 2–3% (±0.5%). Because the ASP region is characterized by deep WMLs, column inventories of total meteoric water were also high, ranging from 10–13 m (±2 m) adjacent to the Dotson Ice Shelf (DIS) and in the deep trough to 7–9 m (±2 m) in shallower areas. These inventories are at least twice those reported for continental shelf waters near the western Antarctic Peninsula. Sea ice melt fractions were mostly negative, indicating net (annual) sea ice formation, consistent with this area being an active polynya. Independently determined fractions of subsurface glacial meltwater (as one component of the total meteoric inventory) had maximum values of 1–2% (±0.5%), with highest and shallowest maximum values at the DIS outflow (80–90 m) and in iceberg-stirred waters (150–200 m). In addition to these upwelling sites, contributions of subsurface glacial meltwater could be traced at depth along the ~ 27.6 isopycnal, from which it mixes into the WML through various processes. Our results suggest a quasi-continuous supply of melt-laden iron-enriched seawater to the euphotic zone of the ASP and help to explain why the ASP is Antarctica’s most biologically productive polynya per unit area.last_img read more

PUBG coming to mobile, starting with China

first_imgPUBG has more exciting news early this month when reports in Korea announced that famous Korean esports operator OGN had plans to construct a 100-player studio for the title. The game has yet to have a full release, still officially in Early Access on Steam until later this year.Esports Insider says: With mobile gaming’s immense popularity in China, it is no surprise to see Tencent enter with early plans for a release on the platform. Given the company’s track record for securing strong audiences for their titles, it seems very likely that we’ll be able to enjoy the game on other platforms internationally in the future too. Credit: PUBGEven without an official local server, the game has already been popular in China, despite users requiring a VPN to play. The area also suffers from a widespread cheating problem that Tencent will be eager to stamp out. But even burdened with multiple challenges to ensure that PUBG transitions properly, the company is already looking ahead to creating a mobile version.The Chinese giant has already seen success with Honor of Kings, the League of Legends-inspired mobile MOBA which was released in Europe in August as ‘Arena of Valor’ after reaching popularity in the South-East Asian market. It’s not unlikely to expect a similar trajectory for a PUBG-esque mobile port, although there’s been no official confirmation that Tencent will be looking to release globally just yet. If the game garners a strong following in China, players elsewhere could anticipate getting their hands on a mobile version further down the line – but as it stands, it is too early to say when that might happen. PUBG could soon see a release on mobile, thanks to a decision announced by the game’s publishers’ Chinese partners, the tech giant Tencent.center_img Bluehole Studio’s tense shooter, PLAYERUNKNOWN’S BATTLEGROUNDS, seems unable to go a week without stealing headlines. The barnstorming Battle Royale-style game is kicking off a burgeoning esports scene, and last week finally secured an official release partner in China. Tencent will operate PUBG in the region, ensuring the game meets certain compliance standards with the Chinese government, and overseeing the title’s distribution.last_img read more